On the eve of Biomedical Research Awaerness Day (BRAD 18 April), EARA looks back at some of the important medical advances over the last year that have involved research using animals.
Among the breakthroughs reported,
that benefit both humans and animals, are:
Research using mice led to many new breakthroughs, such as multiple sclerosisresearch, at the University of Cambridge and to fight chronic pain using synthetic Botox at University College London, UK.
In surgical research on sheep at Lund University, Sweden, freeze-dried valves – later rehydrated for transplantation – were used in animal heart surgery for first time.
A team from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid, Spain, succeeded in curing pulmonary fibrosis disease in mice using a gene therapy.
In Belgium, researchers at EARA members VIB, KU Leuven and UZ Leuven used mice to develop new antibacterial drugs.
Building on a technique developed in rats, Swiss researchers at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, in Lausanne, have announced that stimulating a person’s spinal cord can restore voluntary movement in some paralysed patients (see picture).
Scientists are also developing new biomedical treatments and
techniques that replace, refine or reduce (3Rs) the use of animals in research.
A team from the University of Oxford, UK, and EARA member Janssen Pharmaceutica, Belgium, won the International 3Rs Prize using a computer model that predicts accurately the risk of drug-induced heart arrhythmias in humans.
Animal research is integral to ongoing research in areas such as spinal cord repair, stem cell treatments (Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s), gene therapy (muscular dystrophy, diabetes) and molecularly targeted cancer medicines. Historically, animal research has also led to new diagnostic tests for early treatment (cancer, heart disease); and effective treatments for serious illnesses (diabetes, leukemia, HIV/AIDS, cardiovascular disease).
The same research often helps humans and animals (treatments for arthritis, neurological disorders, organ transplants, cancer therapies) and contributes to farm animal welfare and techniques to save endangered species.
EARA Executive Director, Kirk Leech, said: “Without the use of animals the pace of advances in biomedical research would be dramatically slower.
“Finding alternative methods to animal research, such as computer models and cell cultures are extremely important, but animal testing remains the safest and most effective way to produce drugs and treatments for us all.”
In a piece first published in the Belgian news magazine Knack (in Dutch), Prof. Damya Laoui, from the Flemish Institute for Biotechnology (VIB, an EARA member), in Belgium, together with Dr. Liesbeth Aerts and Dr. Jeroen Aerts from Infopunt Proefdieronderzoek (IPPO, also an EARA member), explain that researchers don’t take the use of animals in biomedical research lightly.
Many people are critical of animal testing, and
from an emotional point of view this is very understandable. Animals are living
beings. They have basic emotions and they also experience physical pain. As
researchers, we are not blind or insensitive to animal suffering, but neither
can we ignore the pain of almost 10 million people who die of cancer worldwide
In 2018, some 70,000 Belgians received a new
cancer diagnosis. Fortunately, their prognosis is in many cases a lot better
than for people who received the same diagnosis 10 or 20 years ago. Thanks to
advances in biomedical research – including through animal testing – the
treatment options for cancer are rapidly expanding. Nevertheless, the number of
cancer cases continues to increase as well, and the disease continues to take
To the people who claim that we can face this
challenge without animal research, we would say: please walk the talk. From our
hands-on experience as biomedical researchers, we would like to argue for greater
nuance in the debate against animal testing. Let’s bust some often heard myths:
Myth One: Animal testing is no longer necessary because we can get the
same results through computer simulations
Unfortunately, we cannot simulate
what we do not understand; that’s kind of the definition of a simulation.
Despite our increasing knowledge, there are still a lot of body processes that
we do not understand well enough to be able to fully predict them. If we could,
we would already have a solution to all diseases.
Just like animal experiments,
computer simulations are one type of tool in our experimental toolbox and they
can certainly help us in the search for answers. For example, computer
simulations are useful to screen different versions of a candidate drug
molecule, or to predict possible negative effects of a drug on a cell.
Depending on the substance and the application, additional (animal) tests will
nevertheless be required.
Myth Two: Researchers use laboratory animals because it is easier and
Researchers who work with laboratory
animals don’t do this for fun. The breeding and housing of experimental animals
is – depending on the species – time-consuming and very expensive. There are
strict rules and conditions (and rightly so!) which mean that for each test an
ethical file has to be drawn up and submitted to an ethical committee.
If an experiment can be done in a
cell culture dish, then the animal experiment simply cannot take place. Can
human samples be used instead? Also then, animal tests are prohibited.
Myth Three: Animal experiments are useless, because mice are not the
same as humans
Mice are indeed not people, but they
do show a lot of similarities. The functioning of many organs is similar and by
changing certain genes in mice, we are able to answer very fundamental
questions, for example about the interaction between the immune system and
cancer cells in a complex organism. That’s exactly why mice are used to study new
Exactly because there are also
important differences in mice and humans, researchers sometimes need to use
other animal species such as dogs or monkeys. As these are more evolved animal
species, they are only used in very exceptional situations.
We have achieved many medical breakthroughs thanks to animal experiments; think of organ transplants, blood transfusions, treatments for diabetes and AIDS, or the development of vaccines against polio, hepatitis and, most recently, the Ebola virus. More than 80% of the Nobel Prizes in Medicine also went to breakthroughs that were based on animal research.
VIDEO: In a lecture for the University of Flanders, Prof. dr. Damya Laoui, of VIB, in Belgium, underscores the need for animal research for her pioneering work into immunotherapy for metastatic breast cancer.
Animal experiments are not a perfect fix; of course they also have limitations. They shouldn’t be the default option, rather, it’s about using the right model for the right questions. Just as for other non-animal research methods, such as computer simulations or experiments in cell lines, there are advantages and disadvantages that have to be weighted.
The legislation on animal testing is therefore
built around the principle of the 3Rs: Reduce, Refine, Replace.
means that only the absolutely required number of animals is used for each
experiment. It is up to the researchers to make a statistically solid estimate
for each experiment, and up to the ethics committee to finally decide.
means that an animal test must be done under the best possible conditions, e.g.
with painkillers if necessary, and that animal welfare should be considered at
all times. This includes legally specified conditions relating to the number of
animals per cage, the control of temperature and humidity in the room, and the
provision of toys.
emphasises the legal need to replace animal testing where alternatives exist.
As researchers, we also apply the fourth ‘R’ of
responsibility. It goes without saying that there should be zero tolerance
policy of researchers who would flout these rules.
Scientists would love to have the tools
available to map the complex mechanisms of cancer metastases, for example, or
to explore new avenues for immunotherapy, without animal testing. For the time
being, however, we don’t. That does not stop us from trying to do better every
day. We keep pushing, not only for new treatments for patients, but also for
better, more refined research methods.
At a roundtable discussion on the use of animals in scientific research there is overwhelming agreement that Europe has appropriate and detailed legislation regulating the use of animals in scientific research, that adapts to and encourages scientific progress.
Conclusions also show that successful implementation of the Directive is a shared responsibility. The round table identified opportunities to join forces and work together, as the Directive 2010/63/EU cannot be successfully implemented by organisations or individuals working in isolation.
At the meeting in Brussels, representatives from the diverse sectors within the biomedical community (academia, industry, research organisations, medical charities, etc.) and policy-makers discuss the recommendations of the European Commission review report of the Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes.
The objective of the roundtable was to inform policy discussion in EU institutions and to identify recommendations for the users’ community on this basis. Topics under discussion were: the implementation of the Directive; improving openness and transparency; ideas for further areas to be tackled. Continue reading →
EARA has responded to a call by the Dutch Science Minister for the Biomedical Primate Research Centre (BPRC), in the Netherlands, an EARA member, to draw up a proposal, by the beginning of next year, to reduce the number of experiments with no-human primates (NHP) by up to 40%.
Ahead of a debate, which took place in the Netherlands House of Representatives earlier this month, EARA wrote to Ingrid van Engelshoven, Minister of Education, Culture and Science and Carola Schouten, Minister of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, urging them not to set an artificial limit on the number of NHP used in research.
The letter, written by EARA, said that any reduction was “highly likely to severely limit the progress that can be made in both fundamental research and the development of innovative medicines and treatments for life-threatening diseases and infectious disease control”.
Currently the main areas of primate study are infectious diseases, neuroscience and fertility and foetal research. Primates are an important model for the development of vaccines and treatments for HIV/AIDS, Ebola, Zika and malaria and for investigations into treatments for conditions ranging from Alzheimer’s disease to Schizophrenia. They are also used in safety testing for new medicines and vaccines. Continue reading →
The European scientific community supports the view of the EU Commission, that the Directive on the protection of animals used in biomedical research is bringing significant benefits in animal welfare and a sound foundation for future best practice in the sector.
The European Animal Research Association (EARA), which represents more than 60 organisations across Europe in the biomedical research sector, has welcomed the Commission report, published today. The report reviews the requirements of Directive 2010/63/EU – all uses of live animals for research or education and testing must be carried out in compliance with the Directive.
In particular, the EU recognised that measures to improve transparency to the general public on the performance of research establishments in the areas of animal use and welfare are starting to have an effect. Requirements to publish non-technical summaries of the objectives and benefits of research projects, as well as annual statistical data, are also seen to have greatly improved openness in Member States. Continue reading →
The European Directive 2010/63 that protects animals required for scientific purposes was enforced in Member states in 2012. The Directive introduced the 3R principles of replacement, reduction and refinement of animal procedures into regulation. The scientific community has recognised the Directive as the world’s most progressive and stringent framework seeking to ensure high animal welfare standards while encouraging the development of alternative methods. As a result of this new legislation, there has been a growing interest in the development and implementation of alternative methods. One initiative pursuing this goal is the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA). Continue reading →